Computer Arts and Design : Editing for New Media – Outcome 1 Tasks 1-3
The main difference between Non-linear editing and Linear editing, is that Non-linear is the most natural approach (when all assets are available as files rather than recordings on reels or tapes) while linear editing is related to the need to sequentially view a film or read a tape to edit it. Non-linear editing allows direct access to any video frame in a digital video clip, without needing to play or scrub/shuttle through adjoining footage to reach it, as was necessary with video tape linear editing systems. Compared to the linear method of tape-to-tape editing, non-linear editing offers the flexibility of film editing with random access and easy project organization. With the edit decision lists, the editor can work on low-resolution copies of the video. This makes it possible to edit both standard-definition broadcast quality and high definition broadcast quality very quickly on normal PCs, which do not have the power to do the full processing of the huge full-quality high-resolution data in real-time. The costs of editing systems have since dropped so much that non-linear editing tools are now within the reach of home users. Live television is still basically produced in the same manner as it was in the 1950s, although transformed by modern technical advances. Before videotape, the only way of airing the same shows again was by filming shows using a kinescope, essentially a video monitor paired with a movie camera. However, kinescopes suffered from picture degradations such as image distortion and apparent scan lines to artefacts in contrast and loss of detail. Kinescopes had to be processed and printed in a film laboratory, making them unreliable for broadcasts delayed for different time zones. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wwidtTnlGJA
- In non-linear editing, the original source files are not lost or modified during editing. This is one of the biggest advantages of non-linear editing compared to linear editing.
- Compared to the linear method of tape-to-tape editing, non-linear editing offers the flexibility of film editing, with random access and easy project organization. With the edit decision lists, the editor can work on low-resolution copies of the video. This makes it possible to edit both standard-definition broadcast quality and high definition broadcast quality very quickly on normal PCs which do not have the power to do the full processing of the huge full-quality high-resolution data in real-time.
In video editing, three-point editing is an editing method used to insert a clip from the source media into a destination track, which is done by setting three edit points. The first two set points define the in and out points of the clip. Unlike drag-to-Timeline editing, three-point editing allows users to use both source clip and sequence in and out points to specify the duration of a source clip and where it should be placed in the sequence. To edit content using three-point editing you need to first set three edit points in your source clip and sequence, and then you perform the edit. Three-point editing gets its name from the fact that Final Cut Pro needs no more than three In and Out points to determine what part of the source clip to place in a sequence.
Continuity editing is the editing style more predominantly used in narrative film-making, the purpose being to smooth over the existing discontinuity of the editing process and to establish a logical joining between the shots. Continuity editing can be divided into two categories: temporal continuity and spatial continuity. Within each category, specific techniques will work against a sense of continuity. Techniques can cause a passage to be continuous, giving the viewer a solid physical narration to follow, or discontinuous, causing the viewer to be at a loss, pondering, or even subliminal interpretation or reaction. Important ways to preserve temporal continuity are avoiding ellipsis, using continuous diegetic sound, and use the match on action technique.
- An ellipsis is an apparent break in natural time continuity as it is implied in the film’s story.
- Diegetic sound is that which is to have actually occurred within the story during the action being viewed. It is sound that comes from within the narrative world of a film (including off-screen sound).
- The Match on action technique can preserve temporal continuity where there is an unrepeated, set physical motion or change within a sequence. It’s when some action occurring before the cut in question is picked up where the cut left off by the shot immediately following. Such as someone being shown kicking a ball and then cut to a shot of the ball in the air, and then a final cut to the goal.
“Discontinuous editing describes the deliberate or accidental violation of rules of continuity when editing films. As a deliberate technique, it may be used to connote authenticity or to create alienation. The viewer’s expectation of continuity can be violated by such methods as changing image size or tone between shots, changing direction or changing shots before the viewer has time to recognize what is happening. It is also known as montage editing, and employs a series of often rapid and non-matching cuts which creates a style the audience is conspicuously aware of, or alternatively that create uneven and unpredictable rhythms and emphasize the rapidity of movement between images.” (taken from Wikipedia)
Very early in on the film business audiences were taught to assume things not shown. For example;
let’s say you want to tell the story of a young woman going out on a date. The process of just watching her pick out clothes, washing, drying her hair, doing her nails, putting on her clothes and make-up, checking herself in a mirror, and then driving to the place could take, let’s say 90 minutes. So instead of showing the full 90 minutes worth of her getting ready and getting there, we make a few edits to suggest what’s happening without having to go through it all. Such as small, quick cuts of her pulling out an outfit, putting on some makeup, leaving the house and pulling up in her car, or even shorter; to have her pull out an outfit from her wardrobe, move off camera and then cut to her pulling up in her car.
Occasionally an editor or director will want to drag out a happening beyond the actual time represented.
Alfred Hitchcock, director of North By Northwest & Psycho, made use of this for a scene where a little boy was walking around town carrying a package with a time bomb. Rather than jump straight to the explosive scene, where it would have been the end of the people; end of the scene, he played out the boys journey to the bus before the bomb went off, showing glances at clocks throughout the city as he passed them on the bus. Hitchcock was famous for suspense, and no real suspense would be generated by without this approach.